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Osteoporosis is defined as a decrease in the absolute amount of bone mass leading to enhanced bone fragility with increased risk of pathological fractures.

Primary Osteoporosis is the most common type of osteoporosis which can be post menopausal or senile; Osteoporosis can be developed secondary to other diseases as cushing’s syndrome, acromegally, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic renal failure, chronic liver failure and hyperthyroidism.

Risk Factors:-
1-     Female gender
2-     Advanced age
3-     Family history
4-     Early menopause
5-     Underweight
6-     Decreased calcium intake
7-     Vitamin D deficiency
8-     Reduced activity
9-     Excessive exercises
10- Alcohol
11- Smoking
12- Caffeine
13- High protein diet
14- Soft drinks
15- Aluminum antacid
16- Corticosteroids

Clinical Picture:-

    Osteoprosis is a silent disease but patients may complain of
1-     Bony aches
2-     Back pain
3-     Pathological fractures
4-     Loss of height


    As most of the diseases osteoporosis depends mainly on taking history in addition to some investigations as X-ray and DEXA “Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry”.

Investigations for other diseases may be required in secondary osteoporosis which includes cortisol level, thyroid function test, blood urea, serum creatinine,


1-     Doing exercise
2-     Proper nutrition
3-     Calcium supplements
4-     Decreasing caffeine intake
5-     Decreasing Alcohol intake
6-     Smoking cessation
7-     Estrogen replacement therapy if needed especially in early menopause


1-     Bisphosphonates which act as osteoclast antagonist
2-     Calcitonin
3-     Calcium
4-     Estrogen therapy

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