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Gall stones

Gall stones are hard deposits that are formed in the gallbladder but it may migrate into the biliary tract.

Gallstones are present in about 10-20 % of the population with higher prevalence in females.

Risk factors:

1- Contraceptive pills
2- Obesity
3- Diabetes
4- Liver cirrhosis
5- Aging
6- High animal fat diet
7- Chronic haemolytic anemia
8- Rapid weight loss


1- Cholesterol gall stones (80 %)
2- Bile pigment stones (20%)

Symptoms and signs:

The majority of cases of gallstones are asymptomatic, discovered accidently by abdominal sonar, X-ray or surgery but if the stone is large the patient may suffer from:
1- Pain in the right upper abdomen
2- Jaundice
3- Fever
4- Abdominal fullness

Complications of gall stones:

1- Pancreatitis
2- Cholecystitis
3- Obstructive jaundice
4- Cholangitis
5- Increased risk for carcinoma


1- Chenodeoxycholic or ursodeoxychlich or both
2- Lithotripsy by extracorporeal shock
3- Dissolution by methyl ether

Cholecystectomy either laproscopic or minilaparotomy

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