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Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or acid reflux disease is a condition in which gastric contents reflux or regurgitate into the esophagus.
GERD is considered as the most common disorder in the esophagus.

Causes and risk factors:

1- Obesity
2- Smoking
3- Pregnancy
4- Hiatus hernia
5- Diseases as Diabetes, Asthma, Scleroderma
6- Drugs as Anticholinergics, B blockers, Ca channel blockers, Nitrates
7- Food as fat, peppermint, chocolate

Signs and Symptoms:

1- Heart burn
2- Chest pain similar to angina pain
3- Dysphagia or odynophagia
4- Nausea
5- GIT bleeding
6- Cough, hoarseness of voice, sore throat


1- Proper history
2- Upper endoscopy
3- PH monitoring
4- Esophageal manometry
5- X-ray or barium study


1- Esophageal stricture
2- Esophageal ulceration
3- Barrett’s esophagus
4- Laryngitis, chronic cough, bronchospasm


Lifestyle measures:

1- Raising the head of the bed
2- Avoiding foods that trigger the symptoms
3- Eating small frequent meals
4- Maintaining healthy weight
5- Avoiding tight clothes around the abdomen
6- Smoking cessation


1- Antacids
2- H2 Blockers
3- Proton pump inhibitors
4- Prokinetics


1- Nissen fundoplication
2- EndoCinch endoluminal gastroplication
3- Stretta system

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